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Burn (Gubaa)

  (Beeksisa: Bareffannon kuni afaani Inglizi tiini. Yeroo gabaabatti gara Afaan Oromotti hikkama) 

BURN is one of the most common domestic accidents both in rural areas and in a town where ever open fire is used.

 Due to the lack of observance or un awareness of the mothers who are usually responsible for cooking of  food make small children more exposed to burn accidents than any other in the family.

 The consequence of burn accident depends upon the degree of the burn and which part of the body is most affected.  The common domestic accident of burn has made many children and adults in Africa deformed hands, faces, arm, legs and even death.


NB. Informing the mothers or the grown up in the family is the most important prevention of burn accidents




1) Keep the children away from an unattended very hot water, hot coffee, hot cooking pots and open fire. Constructing barrier around open fire is of good prevention.

Burn accidents have more of the socio- economical factors. Children who are born and grown up in rural areas or who come from poor families are very much exposed to burn accidents. The poor families lack the knowledge of how to protect their children from fire, lack people to educate them and they use much of their time to survive.

2)  Mothers or parents must always have watch full eyes on the movements of the children.


 3)  Educate the children about the danger of fire, matches and very hot cooking pots.


Burn accident is divided in three groups:


1) First grade burn

2) Second grade burn

3) Third grade burn



(A) -First grade burn damages the outer layer of the skin. It gives mild pain, swelling and redness’ of the skin


1) Immediately submerge the affected part in cold water. Cold water decreases the pain.

2) Place cold wet clothes on it until the pain decreases

3) At the end cover with a clean dry dressing for protection


(B) Second grade burn- it burns the second layer of the skin


-  skin blister,

-  red skin

-  swelling skin

-  extreme painful skin


-  immerse in cold water or apply clean wet clothes on the burned area. Cold water helps to cool the burn and reduce the pain

-  When one is through with first stage, cover the burn area with dry clean bandage

-  If it is available, contact with medical person


C) Third grade burn- is a serious damage where by the burn goes through the first, the second and third layer of the skin. Such burn destroys the skin tissue and the skin nerves cells. It loses the feeling of skin pain due to the damage of the skin nerve.


-  Do not apply cold water or wet clothes on burn areas

-  Try to cover with clean bandage and immediate contact with medical person or hospital

- If the burn is on the face make sure that the breathing is ok.  Burn on the face might give breathing difficulties due to the breathing in of the fire flame. Needs immediate contact of hospital or medical person

- Generally third grade burn must always contact medical person


The  important difference between the first, the second and the gird grade burn is that the first and the second grade burn is painful and the outer skin layer  is affected but the third grade burn is not painful and the burn goes beyond the skin layer, skin tissue and the nerve cells.

 1. Never put butter or greasy ointments on a burn. They seal heat into the wound and may cause infection.
2. Always seek medical attention if...
* Victim is a child or elderly
* Burn covers more than one body part
* Burn is located on any sensitive area of the body (hands face, feet, etc.)
* Burn is third degree
* Burn is caused by chemicals


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